Publications of Anthony, B.
Application of modified threat reduction assessments in Lebanon
Worldwide efforts have concentrated on developing monitoring methods that would enhance the assessment of progress toward achieving the 2010 conservation objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Threat reduction assessment is one such method. It provides an indirect measure of the effects of a conservation project by evaluating changes in human-induced direct threats to protected areas. We applied modified threat reduction assessments and the 2008 International Union for Conservation of Nature standardized lexicon for classification of threats to Horsh Ehden and Al-Shouf Cedar nature reserves in Lebanon. Our goal was in part to test the suitability of this tool for improving monitoring and management effectiveness of protected forests in Lebanon. In Horsh Ehden, composite threats decreased by 24% from 1997 to2002, and then increased from 2002 to 2009 by 78% in the core area of the reserve and by 118% in the reserve’s buffer zone (surrounds core area, conservation and recreational activities allowed). In Al-Shouf Cedar reserve threats decreased by 51% from 2006 to 2009. Management teams from both reserves have integrated the use of this method to prioritize actions for new management plans. We believe that in Lebanon and other countries with limited resources and weak monitoring programs or that are experiencing political instability threat reduction assessments could be used to improve the effectiveness of protected areas management.
Sitting on the fence? Policies and practices in managing human-wildlife conflict in Limpopo Province, South Africa
Human-wildlife conflicts are the product of socio-economic and political landscapes and are contentious because the resources concerned have economic value and species are often high profile and legally protected. Within a governance framework, we detail institutional roles and the effectiveness of policies and practices of controlling damage-causing animals (DCAs) at Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province along KNP’s western border. Most DCAs originate from the park, significantly affecting its long-term legitimacy among local communities. Between 2002 and 2004, over 12% of households within 15 km of the park experienced DCA damage, with incidents significantly correlated with being located closer to KNP and having higher numbers of mammalian livestock. These incidents are affecting opinions concerning KNP, as those who experienced damage were less likely to believe that the park would ever help their household economically. According to 482 DCA incident records from 1998 to 2004, the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippo and crocodile. Limpopo Province utilised professional hunters in DCA control, however, widespread abuses including the direct luring of lion led to a national moratorium on specific hunting practices. DCA procedures are highly flawed due to ambiguity concerning species and movement of DCAs, poor reporting, inadequate response times, overlapping responsibilities, and corruption. These are exacerbated by weak and, in some cases, competing institutions. Further, the controversial issue of undelivered compensation is determining negative attitudes by communities towards institutions who have historically promised it. Drawing on good governance principles, we offer recommendations on alleviating DCA conflicts in such contexts.
Strengthening Romania’s Protected Area System by Demonstrating Best Practices for Management of Small Protected Areas in Macin Mountains National Park : Conservation attitudes in the communities neighbouring the Măcin Mountains National Park
Project no: #47111Mission 1: May-July 2007Report for the Măcin Mountains National Park Administration, Romania.Abstract: Beliefs and attitudes of local people toward protected areas are increasingly being considered in conservation planning. Although park-people studies abound, relatively little is known about these relationships in Central and Eastern Europe. Romania’s protected area management system currently involves considering aspirations of local communities. A questionnaire administered to 374 households was the main tool for assessing knowledge about, and attitudes towards Macin Mountains National Park (MMNP). Only 20.1% of respondents had knowledge of MMNP activities, and 95.2% were unacquainted with the Consultative Council, which purportedly represents community interests in park affairs. A community attitude index (CAI) was constructed, aggregating responses to seven attitude-related questions. CAI values ranged from −7 to 7 with a mean of −0.50. Attitudes were primarily influenced by education level and whether households had members who fish. Most attitudes were neutral, largely due to lack of interaction with MMNP. Positive attitudes were mostly related to the intrinsic value of nature and its services. Negative attitudes were chiefly determined by perceived fuelwood shortages and/or higher prices, or introductions of potentially dangerous animals. These results have particular implications for involving local communities in MMNP management, and may be relevant for similar protected areas in Romania and elsewhere.
Poised for engagement: Local communities and the Măcin Mountains National Park, Romania
Beliefs and attitudes of local people toward protected areas are increasingly being considered in conservation planning. Although park-people studies abound, relatively little is known about these relationships in Central and Eastern Europe. Romania’s protected area management system currently involves considering aspirations of local communities. A questionnaire administered to 374 households was the main tool for assessing knowledge about, and attitudes towards,Macin Mountains National Park (MMNP). Only 20.1% of respondents had knowledge of MMNP activities, and 95.2% were unacquainted with the Consultative Council, which purportedly represents community interests in park affairs. A community attitude index (CAI) was constructed, aggregating responses to seven attitude-related questions. CAI values ranged from −7 to 7 with a mean of −0.50. Attitudes were primarily influenced by education level and whether households had members who fish. Most attitudes were neutral, largely due to lack of interaction with MMNP. Positive attitudes were mostly related to the intrinsic value of nature and its services. Negative attitudes were chiefly determined by perceived fuelwood shortages and/or higher prices, or introductions of potentially dangerous animals. These results have particular implications for involving local communities inMMNPmanagement, and may be relevant for similar protected areas in Romania and elsewhere.
Use of modified Threat Reduction Assessments to estimate success of conservation measures within and adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa
Abstract The importance of biodiversity as natural capital for economic development and sustaining human welfare is well documented. Nevertheless, resource degradation rates and persistent deterioration of human welfare in developing countries is increasingly worrisome. Developing effective monitoring and evaluation schemes and measuring biodiversity loss continue to pose unique challenges, particularly when there is a paucity of historical data. Threat reduction assessment (TRA) has been proposed as a method to measure conservation success and as a proxy measurement of conservation impact, monitoring threats to resources rather than changes to biological parameters themselves. This tool is considered a quick, practical alternative to more cost- and time-intensive approaches, but has inherent weaknesses. I conducted TRAs to evaluate the effectiveness of Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province, South Africa, in mitigating threats to biodiversity from 1994 to 2004 in 4 geographical areas. I calculated TRA index values in these TRAs by using the original scoring developed by Margoluis and Salafsky (2001) and a modified scoring system that assigned negative mitigation values to incorporate new or worsening threats. Threats were standardized to allow comparisons across the sites. Modified TRA index values were significantly lower than values derived from the original scoring exercise. Five of the 11 standardized threats were present in all 4 assessment areas, 2 were restricted to KNP, 2 to Limpopo Province, and 2 only to Malamulele municipality. These results indicate, first, the need to integrate negative mitigation values into TRA scoring. By including negative values, investigators will be afforded a more accurate picture of biodiversity threats and of temporal and spatial trends across sites. Where the original TRA scoring was used to measure conservation success, reevaluation of these cases with the modified scoring is recommended. Second, practitioners must carefully consider the need and consequences of generalizing threats into generic categories for comparative assessments. Finally, continued refinement of the methodology and its extension to facilitate the transfer of successful conservation strategies is needed.
Environment domain of Community Health Indicators Toolkit : Report on First Nation’s Health Development : Tools for Assessment of Health and Social Service Program Impacts on Community Wellness and Capacity project
Prepared for University of Regina and University of Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit.
The dual nature of parks: attitudes of neighbouring communities towards Kruger National Park, South Africa
The attitudes of neighbouring communities towards protected areas are increasingly being considered in the establishment and management of national parks. In South Africa, more inclusive policies have been introduced which seek to involve neighbouring communities in policy formulation and management of Kruger National Park (KNP). This paper examines the attitudes of 38 communities towards KNP along its western border. A random survey of 240 households was conducted to assess attitudes towards the Park, and what factors might influence them. Attitudes were measured by responses to 12 related questions, which were transformed to construct an attitude index. Attitudes are more varied than previously reported. Notwithstanding KNP outreach programmes, many respondents had had no interaction with KNP, 72.9% had never been in the Park, and only 32.1% claimed they knew of KNP’s activities. Having a household member employed by KNP, age and de jure Traditional Authority affiliation influenced more positive attitudes toward KNP. Negative attitudes were primarily linked with problems associated with damage-causing animals, including inadequate maintenance of the KNP border fence, poor animal control outside KNP and lack of compensation for affected farmers. These findings on relationships between KNP and its neighbours are relevant for many protected areas in similar contexts elsewhere.
Use and value of landscapes, flora and fauna by Tsonga communities in the rural areas of Limpopo Province, South Africa
Many parts of the former homeland areas of South Africa are believed to be experiencing environmental scarcity, and are increasingly vulnerable to resource over-exploitation. Frequently, these areas are adjacent to formally protected areas and present unique challenges in integrating biodiversity conservation and sustaining livelihoods, especially for resource-dependent rural communities. Although studies have been undertaken on the use of various plants by Tsonga communities, and the economic value of specific taxa, no investigation on the relative importance value that considers both wild flora and fauna, together with landscapes, has been carried out previously in the former Gazankulu homeland. We used a weighted ranking exercise for nine focus groups within three rural villages bordering the Kruger National Park, which are largely dependent on wild resources, to assess the relative importance of landscape units and species-level biodiversity. Landscape units, particularly forest/bush and river/stream, were found to be extensively used in meeting community needs, across a range of resource use categories including maintaining socio-cultural norms. Moreover, landscape units vary among villages and age/gender regarding how they contribute to sustaining livelihoods. In total, 162 taxa were identified, with two taxa (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra; Ficus spp.) exploited in up to seven use categories. Sclerocarya birrea, Combretum imberbe and Colophospermum mopane were the most highly valued species among those surveyed, contributing 22% to the overall value of wild flora and fauna in the area. Of those identified, 28 faunal (60%) and 10 floral (8.7%) taxa are listed in either IUCN, national or provincial protected species schedules. Based on combined Local Users Value scores, over 20% of all biodiversity value for local communities comes from protected tree species. Similarly, faunal taxa with enhanced protection constitute almost 12% of all local biodiversity value. In developing strategies for resource conservation, it is necessary to recognize this widespread use of the natural environment and the wild products, including those under formal protection, exploited by local people.
A view from the other side of the fence: Tsonga communities and the Kruger National Park, South Africa
People whose livelihoods chiefly involve the direct exploitation of local natural resources often come into conflict with the institutions of protected areas, which are dedicated to natural resource conservation or preservation. Many scholars and managers now question the traditional top-down approach of excluding local participation and ignoring local interests in protected areas establishment and management. More participatory planning is believed to enhance local support for biodiversity conservation goals of protected areas. It is also believed that sustainable utilization of certain resources and/or protected area outreach programs will contribute to rural development, especially in underdeveloped countries, and decrease conflicts between local people and park authorities. However, efforts in different parts of the world to integrate objectives of biodiversity conservation and rural development have had mixed results. This research highlights some of the challenges to this process in the communal areas of South Africa. This research adopts a mixed methods approach utilizing questionnaires, interviews, the Pebble Distribution Method, and Threat Reduction Assessments. It empirically examines the nature of the relationship, including the perceptions and use of natural resources, between the Kruger National Park (KNP) and rural Tsonga communities located adjacent to its western border. Some of these communities are represented on the Hlanganani Forum, established in 1994 when South Africa became a new democracy. The historical background of these communities, which form part of the former Gazankulu homeland, is characterized by a general dissatisfaction with park authorities due to conflicts with wildlife and perceived loss of access to resources within the KNP. Although the focus here is on interactions between South Africa's KNP and its neighbouring rural communities, the findings have relevance and resonance beyond Africa as they raise key questions that can be considered in similar contexts. Fundamentally, this thesis argues that KNP’s success in merging goals of biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development is largely shaped by, and dependent upon, local perceptions of institutions responsible for resource use and access. Specifically for KNP, stronger and more forthright commitment and dedicated investment towards its neighbouring communities is needed. Moreover, to effectively integrate these objectives, KNP and protected areas in similar contexts must: i) involve a thorough understanding by all stakeholders of the ongoing needs and aspirations of relevant parties, including local perceptions of nature and its conservation; ii) be supported by strong institutions, and enabling legislation and policies; iii) meaningfully address immediate concerns including employment, damage-causing animals, and land claims; and iv) recognize and accept limitations to partnerships, including those concerning public safety and veterinary risks.
Results of the first batrachian survey in Europe using road call counts
Within the last 20 years, there have been extensive efforts to monitor populations of calling amphibians, especially in North America. One such initiative involves use of volunteers in conducting road call counts. To date, no attempt has been made to test the efficacy of this technique in Europe. This paper summarizes research involving road call counts in the Biharugra Landscape Protected Area, Körös-Maros National Park, Hungary. Seven of Hungary's 12 anuran species were identified in the study area using this method and an additional 3 species were detected by complementary visual encounter surveys. Limitations, including variations in species calling radii, extraneous noise, and program resource requirements should be considered when designing similar volunteer-based road call count protocols for other regions. However, this method should be of value in many areas in Hungary and Central Europe, due to its low cost, accessibility of volunteers, and value in accurately detecting most anuran species (including Bombina bombina and Hyla arborea - both IUCN Red Data Book species).
A Közép-Európai Szalamandra Év és a Monitor 2000 program: nemzetközi civil természetvédelmi programok Magyarországon
The Central-European Salamander Year and the Monitorb 2000 programme : international NGO conservation programmes in Hungary
A kétéltűek hang alapján történő monitorozása (Körös-Maros Nemzeti Park – Kis-Sárrét)
Amphibian monitoring by sound – Körös-Maros National Park – Kis-Sárrét